There are multiple origins and translations for the name Neander:
1. German from Greek νέο [neo] + ανδρ [andr] means - "new man".
2. Derived from the Latin word neanderthalensis denotation - "Neanderthal". The species is named after the site of its first discovery in the river Düssel's Neander valley (Germany) named for Joachim Neander.